The civil engineering market consumed 275 thousand tons of tires in 2015, about 7.7 percent of the total tires to market and consists of tire shreds used in road and landfill construction, septic tank leach fields and other construction applications. Tires add beneficial properties in these applications, such as vibration and sound control, lightweight fill to prevent erosion and landslides and facilitate drainage in septic, leachate or landfill gas systems. This market also includes the use of shredded scrap tires as alternative daily cover in landfill operations. In this use, the shredded scrap tires serve to displace raw materials (e.g. sand, clay) that would otherwise have to be utilized.